Initial results regarding injuries in TRuST classes
As announced, here are the initial and preliminary (!) results regarding injuries in TRuST classes.
Procedure / instruments
For data basis all analog and digitally available training plans from ParkourONE Switzerland as of November 2009 were used. All ParkourONE teachers are obliged to deliver their plans of each lesson at the end of the month. Therefore one can take it that these plans are reliably available. A greater known absence of data of one of the class locations, can be tied to a loss of digital data. The exact default rate could not be determined. Regarding injuries, TRuST HEADCOACHES are obliged to report these as “incidents” (not standardised). When students have to be admitted to a hospital, monitored or attended to for more than 2 – 3 minutes, they have the duty to report directly to ParkourONE. The ParkourONE training plans are partly-standardised retrospective data.
Recorded were the day and location of the lesson, how many (HEAD-)COACHES (as an indication for the amount of students attending) were on duty and if there were any incidents. Next, the following were sorted, whether a termination of the lesson; pains or complaints; an accident or injury (and if so to what magnitude and which area the injury resulted in) were reported. If no further information was provided, it was marked down as such.
The sample consists of 2412 plans of 2 hour-lessons each ranging from November 5th 2009 until November 29th 2016. 1933 lessons (80.11 %) were conducted in classes with ages 12 years and up, 290 lessons (12.0 %) in classes with kids between 6 and 12 years of age and the left over 189 lessons (7.8 %) with students as part of the university sports programme. At 1509 lessons (62.6 %) were 2 TRuST (HEAD-)COACHES in attendance, the other 903 lessons (37.4 %) were lead by one HEADCOACH alone.
The data analysis was performed with SPSS version 24. The frequency and injury-incidence (injuries per 1000 hours) were calculated. These are configured through the amount of injuries divided by the amount of Parkour-hours times multiplied by 1000.
The amount of hours were aggregated with an estimated number of participants. A TRuST lesson lasts 2 hours and a maximum of 12 students per acting (HEAD-)COACH can attend. A conservative estimate was made, in which it was assumed that with two (HEAD-)COACHES there were 12 students and with one HEADCOACH 6 students in attendance.
No incidents were recorded in 94.9 % of all lessons (n=2285). One incident was reported in 4.8 % (n=116), two incidents in 0.3 % (n=8) and three incidents in 0.1 % (n=3) of the lessons. In these cases the reports included uncommon contacts with passersby, janitors, media or accidents.
In 97.2 % of lessons (n=2344) no accidents were recorded. Reported were one accident in 2.6 % (n=63) and two accidents in 0.2 % (n=5) of the classes. The 73 accidents occurred within 47.052 hours of Parkour, which equals an injury-incidence of 1.55 injuries per 1000 hours. Of those reporting an injury, 19.2 % (n=14) did not continue with the rest of the lesson, 30.1 % (n=23) were able to continue, and for 49.3 % (n=36) there was no further information on whether or not they could train.
Regarding the area and severity of the injury, take a look at the results in the table:
Overall the data hints at a low risk of injuries within the Parkour lessons according to TRuST. The incidents of injuries (injuries per 1000 Parkour hours) pertains 1.55. The tabular overview of risk of injuries per 1000 sports hours of various sports (without parkour) on page 672 of Schöffl et al. (2010) can be used as a comparison:
Out of the 73 reported injuries, 5 were ligament ruptures or fracture. The majority of injuries (n=57) were bruises, contusions, bumps, pulled muscles or cuts. Abrasions were rarely reported, however one can assume that these were considered minor injuries and not reported in the first place. Concerning the area of the injuries, the lower extremities were mostly affected with 63.0 %. A general statement can be made, that due to the unstandardised gathering of unusual incidents, there is a lack of certain and at times important information. As an example, for 49.3 % of participants injured during a lesson, it was impossible to tell whether or not the lesson could be continued or not. For quality management in this case, it would important to revise the lesson planing in the near future, so all relevant information can be acquired.
Schöffl, V., Morrison, A., Schwarz, U., Schöffl, I., & Küpper, T. (2010). Evaluation of injury and fatality risk in rock and ice climbing. Sports medicine, 40(8), 657-679.
Text: Iljana Käufeler
Translation: Michael Thümmler